Some previous innovation studies have recognized the existence of innovation paradoxes, meaning that some regions exhibit stronger (innovation prone) and some exhibit weaker (innovation averse) than expected economic growth relative to their R&D activity (Rodriguez-Pose 1999, Makkonen & Inkinen 2013).
In my PhD thesis, I have identified the under- and overachieving clusters in Helsinki Metropolitan Area in regard to the present state geography of human capital. This gives major advice to planning authorities of the region by highlighting the areas with the most potential for innovative growth.
Method is multivariate spatial regression with GeoDa software. Analyzing the connection between zip code area's and its neighbors level of human capital and cluster's innovative output, we get the predictions of the estimated innovative output of the cluster and the residual values of each area, which show how much the area's development is lagged at the present.
Results show that new clusters of knowledge intensive jobs and thus innovations could emerge into outskirts of inner city of Helsinki as well as some sub centers in Espoo and Vantaa. Areas rasterized with both styles represent innovation prone areas in regard to both, absolute and relative level of nearby human capital.
These areas are southern and northern edge of the inner city in Helsinki as well as Kera, Mankkaa and Laajalahti in Espoo and Jokiniemi in Vantaa. Findings encourage to sufficient zoning of commercial space in ongoing planning of inner city extensions in Helsinki and planning of certain new or developing sub centers in Espoo and Vantaa.
Photo by Rob Hurson
Juho Kiuru, geographer living in Helsinki, Finland.